Names in this site follow the Japanese custom of family name first.

March 30, 2014

Shodenji and its Garden, Kyoto

Shodenji is a small Zen temple, in a corner of northern Kyoto that has been blissfully forgotten by tourists. It is known for its dry garden with plantings of azalea bushes, from which in the distance the top of Mt Hiei is visible (like that other northern Kyoto garden, Entsuji). The garden was restored by famous garden architect Shigemori Mirei (1896-1975), the first restoration of an old temple garden he would undertake that in fact was almost a new creation.

Shodenji, Kyoto
[Shodenji]

Shodenji's garden originally dates from the 17th century. The temple today stands at the end of a residential district with still some fields and greenhouses left between the "my-homes," on a densely wooded hillside. The path to the temple, a long series of steps under high trees, seems to lead to another world, and indeed, as the temple sits on a flattened shelf, only the tops of trees and a distant mountain range are visible. Nothing discordant intrudes into this vision, and the only dissonant is aural: a machine gathering balls on a nearby golf course.

Shodenji's garden lies east of the Hojo (Superior's Quarters). On two sides it is enclosed by a tile-capped white clay wall; on the third side is a densely planted border. Original for this garden is the fact that groupings of stones usual in Zen gardens have been replaced by groupings of clipped azalea bushes. These azaleas are arranged in kare-sansui style: in groups of 7-5-3 (shichi-go-san), just as the rocks in Zen gardens. This grouping was considered as auspicious, and is - as usual - compared to "a lion family crossing a river."


Shodenji, Kyoto
[Garden of Shodenji - groupings of three and five azalea bushes]

The groupings increase in size from left to right, leading the eye to the right where there is a gate in the wall. The dark trees provide a nice contrast to the white walls, the white gravel and the plantings which in late April - early May color bright red. 

The upper outline of Mt Hiei is clearly visible above the wall and has been incorporated into the composition of this pristine, little garden. 

[The planting of seven azalea bushes and the gate in the garden of Shodenji]

The Rinzai Zen temple Shodenji was founded in 1268 by Togan Ean at Imadegawa, to "transmit the correct teaching" ("shoden") of the Chinese Song-dynasty Zen priest Gottan Funei. It was moved to the present location in 1282, on land donated by the head priest of the Kamigamo Shrine.

The area in which Shodenji is located is called Nishigamo and is a 20-30 min walk from either the Kamigamo Shrine to the east, or the Takagamine area to the west (with interesting temples as Koetsuji, Joshoji and Genkoan).
The bus stop nearest to Shodenji is Jinkoin-mae, one stop before the end of either line 9 or 37 to Nishigamo Shako. 
9:00-17:00. 400 yen. 

March 24, 2014

Basho's Haiku on Nara (5): "With young leaves"

On one of his visits to Nara, Basho also came to Toshodaiji where he saw the dry-lacquer portrait statue made of the temple's founder, the Chinese monk Ganjin. Ganjin had reached Japan only after many tribulations and gone blind because of his hardships. Still, he was determined to make the dangerous sea voyage to bring the correct Buddhist precepts and rules for monastic life to Japan. After working in Todaiji, at the end of his life he retired to Toshodaiji, his private temple and a school for training monks in the Vinaya.

The statue shows him seated in deep meditation, peaceful but also powerful. Thanks to the soft dry-lacquer used, and the natural paint that has still not faded, it makes a very realistic impression. It was reputedly made a few days before his death, after his chief disciple had had the ominous dream of seeing the roof of the temple collapse. Ganjin died on the 6th day of the 5th lunar month 763, aged 76. He passed away calmly and quietly, seated upright and facing west.

[Grave of Ganjin in Toshodaiji]

with young leaves
the dew from your eyes
I want to wipe

wakaba shite | onme no shizuku | muguwabaya

The slightly swollen eyes of the statue seem to hint at Ganjin's blindness. The closed eyes, with the eyelashes painted on, attract the viewer's attention to the face. It is a moving statue that manages to capture the essence of Ganjin. Basho must have harbored the same sentiment. The tears ('dew') are rather Basho's own tears, on meeting the blind monk, who almost lost his life when bringing the Buddhist Precepts to Japan.

Wiping the eyes with green leaves is also a compassionate gesture towards the monk who can not see the green, young leaves of the new spring. In this way, he can feel their soft new life and smell their freshness... Indeed, the Ganjin statue almost seems alive. Facing him, one can not help but being filled with great respect and affection.

The haiku stone stands in front of the former Kaisando of Toshodaiji (just north of the Raido).
15-min walk from Nishi-no-Kyo or Amagatsuji Stations on the Kintetsu Line; 15-min walk from Yakushiji.

March 21, 2014

Basho's Haiku on Nara (4): "Pine Tree of Taimadera"

Basho loved Chinese literature and one of his favorite books was the Zhuangzi, the Taoist anthology from the 3rd c. BCE. There is a Zhuangzi story about a pine tree large enough to cover 1,000 head of cattle. This tree had in fact lived so long that it served no practical purpose anymore. About the present pine tree, reputedly also 1,000 years old, Basho remarks in the foreword to the haiku that it is very fortunate the tree has escaped the penalty of being cut down with an ax. This is of course thanks to the Buddha's protection - that is what he refers to with 'Law,' which is the Teaching of the Buddha.

The tree, by the way, seems to have fallen victim to the axe after Basho's visit, because the present insignificant weed certainly does not have a trunk 'to hold a bull.' The haiku was meant as a complimentary greeting to the great temple, where this tree could live so long, while many generations of priests had passed away, their lives as brief as the morning glory. The long-lived tree symbolizes Taimadera, a temple that has kept the Light of the Law burning through the ages.


 [Pine Tree of Taimadera]

priests, morning-glories,
how many have died,
while this pine lasts as long as the Law

so asagao | iku shinikaeru | nori no matsu

The haiku stone stands in the front garden of the Nakanobo subtemple in the Taimadera complex; the pine tree can be found outside the gate of this Nakanobo.
10-min. walk from Taimadera Station on the Kintetsu Line.
The Chuang Tzu has been translated by Burton Watson (Columbia University Press, 1996).

March 16, 2014

Basho's haiku on Nara (3): "Deer crying"

Nara's deer are considered the messengers of the main deity of the Kasuga Shrine, Takemigatsuchi, who came riding a deer all the way from Kashima in present-day Ibaraki Prefecture to Nara. At the same time, they remind of the Deer Park in Benares, where the Buddha gave his first sermon. They therefore have both a Shinto and Buddhist meaning and admirably fit the religious multiplex of Kofukuji Temple and Kasuga Taisha shrine which originally stood here. There are about 1,000 of them and they have always been a protected species. In the past, people who killed one of these animals received the death sentence by being buried alive; now offenders are punished in a somewhat lighter manner. It seems, unfortunately, that this protection has rather spoiled the deer, who have lost their natural meekness and have become positively aggressive. They have been observed to snatch and consume handbags of unsuspecting visitors.

[Deer in Nara Park near Kofukuji]

At night the deer are gathered in an enclosure lying to the side of the path leading to the Kasuga Shrine. A trumpet signal calls them together. To prevent them from getting into fights in rut time, their antlers are cut every year from the middle of October to early November. This is done in a special ceremony on Sundays and holidays in that period and attracts many spectators.

On the 8th day of the 9th month in 1694 (so just before his visit to Shonenji) Basho, accompanied by three disciples, took an evening walk near Sarusawa pond and heard the melancholy call of the deer in the distance. Autumn is rut time, when the deer let their cry resound through the forest. These cries in fact vary from a short presence cry, to a long and sad languishing cry (as in the haiku), a defiance cry on a high note, a pursuit cry (when the buck runs behind the doe) and triumph cry. To hear the languishing, melancholy cry in the forest, while around you the shadows are falling, can impart a feeling of deep loneliness, especially when you are a traveler.

languishing cry
sadly drawn out
deer at night

bii to naku | shirigoe kanashi | yoru no shika

[Deer in the Kasuga Shrine]

Nara's deer inspired Basho also to other haiku, for example when he came across a baby deer born on the very day the Buddha's Birthday was celebrated (April 8 in the modern calendar, the Kanbutsu Festival, also called Flower Festival):
happening to be born
on Buddha's birthday
a baby deer!

kanbutsu no | hi ni umare-au | ka no ko kana

The haiku stone stands in front of the deer enclosure to the right side of the path leading to the Kasuga Taisha Shrine. This is where the deer are gathered at night and where the ceremony of cutting the antlers takes place.30-min. walk from Kintetsu Nara Station. Or bus from JR or Kintetsu Nara Stations to Kasuga Taisha Honden bus stop. The place where the haiku stone stands is always freely accessible. 

March 13, 2014

Basho's Haiku on Nara (2): "Water Drawing"

Omizutori, 'water-drawing,' is a central rite of the Shunie (literally, 'rite observed in February') held at the Nigatsudo Hall of Todaiji Temple in Nara. The entire shunie lasts from March 1 to 14 (that is, in the modern calendar), during which period every evening an otaimatsu ceremony is held on the balcony of Nigatsudo: the waving of huge blazing torches from the hall's veranda, in fact whole trees set afire, sprinkling sparks over the crowd below (from 19:30, the biggest event is on March 12). The water drawing proper takes place in the night from March 12 to March 13 between around 01:30 and 02:30, when the priests draw water by torchlight from a well at the base of the hall. It is believed that water with special restorative powers is only available at that particular time. The water is offered to the image of the Eleven-Headed Kannon, the central Bodhisattva of the Nigatsudo Hall, who is a 'secret' statue. The rite symbolizes the arrival of spring and was first held in 752.

[Nigatsudo Hall of Todaiji, location of the Omizutori rite]

Otaimatsu is a most impressive ceremony and the monks who wave the torches come running down the verandah of the Nigatsudo on their wooden clogs, giving off a particular staccato rattle. This sound struck Basho and he aptly combines it with the icy cold which in March is still in the air in Nara, especially after dark.

Water Drawing!
the clogs of the monks
make an icy sound

mizutori ya | kori no so no | kutsu no oto


[Stone monuments at Nigatsudo, Todaiji]

When Basho visited Todaiji, the temple was still under repair after the destruction wrought by the civil wars of the sixteenth century. The Great Buddha statue was only finally completed in 1692, after the visit by Basho described above, and the statue sat for years in the open like the Great Buddha in Kamakura. The new Buddha Hall (which is the present one) was finally finished in 1708, but Basho did not live to see this. He grieved for the Buddha in its sad state, for at that time even the head had not been restored yet. Basho saw only the rump of the statue, slowly being covered by the first snow of the year, and he wrote:

first snow!
when will the temple building start
for the Great Buddha?

hatsu yuki ya | itsu Daibutsu no | hashira date

The haiku stone stands to the side of the steps leading up to the Nigatsudo Hall in Todaiji. No entrance fee.
30-min walk from Nara Kintetsu Station or JR Nara station.

March 10, 2014

Basho's haiku on Nara (1): "Scent of Ancient Buddhas"

Basho was born in 1644 in the castle town of Iga-Ueno, in the Kansai area, but at a young age settled in Edo. He made several trips back to western Japan and then also often visited the Nara area or Yamatoji as it is called in Japanese. In 1684 he visited Yoshino and the next year he observed the Water Drawing Ceremony in Todaiji and an outside Noh performance (Takigi-Noh) in Kofukuji. He also visited Horyuji. These visits have been described in Nogarashi Kiko, 'The Record of a Weather-Exposed Skeleton.' In 1686 he was again in the Kansai, and this time he wrote Oi no Kobumi, 'The Record of a Travel-Worn Satchel,' about his peregrinations, this time to Hase, Tonomine, Yoshino, Katsuragi, Nara, Ishinogami, Miwa, Yagi and Taima. Next he was back in 1689 for the famous Wakamiya Festival of the Kasuga Shrine. In 1691 he again saw the outside Noh performance at Kofukuji. In 1694, the year of his death, finally, he spent one night in Nara on the way to Osaka.

Here is the fist of several posts with haiku Basho wrote inspired by the temples and shrines of Nara: about the many Buddha statues in the ancient town, the crying deer of the Kasuga Shrine, the Water Drawing Ceremony in Todaiji and an old pine tree at Taimadera temple. Most moving of all is the haiku he wrote about the blind Ganjin, the founder of Toshodaiji.

We start with the "Scent of Ancient Buddhas."


[Ancient Buddha - Binzuru statue of Todaiji]

scent of chrysanthemums
in Nara
ancient Buddhas

kiku no ka ya | Nara ni wa furuki | hotoketachi

Shonenji is a tiny Jodo sect temple standing in the southwest corner of the block that forms the old Nara town. It is almost not part of that old town anymore, standing within hearing distance of a busy road and encircled by small, ugly apartments. The laundry of the inhabitants, hanging from their balconies, almost wholly covers the grounds of Shonenji. One would expect Buddhist banners and pennants here, but instead finds T-shirts and underwear fluttering in the wind.

The temple was founded by Chogen (1121-1206), the Todaiji priest who was responsible for the rebuilding of the temple after it had been destroyed in the Genpei War in 1180. It must therefore date from the 12th or early 13th c.; the only reminder of those days is a statue of Shandao (one of the founders of Jodo or Pure Land Buddhism) brought back from China by Chonen and now still in the temple. It is not normally on view.

In fact, one only comes to this temple to see the famous Basho haiku, inscribed on a stone in front of the small temple hall. Basho was in Nara on the ninth day of the ninth month, 1694, the day the Choyo no Sekku or Chrysanthemum Festival was celebrated. He wrote this haiku while taking a rest in Shonenji and one imagines that the temple grounds were filled with chrysanthemums rather than pants and shirts. The haiku stone is old: it was put up in 1793, to commemorate that already one century had passed since the demise of the haiku master. The haiku wonderfully catches the atmosphere of Japan's ancient capital.

{Shonenji's main hall and the haiku stone}
The haiku stone stands in front of the main hall of Shonenji temple. One can freely enter the grounds to see the haiku stone; the temple hall itself is closed.
20-min walk from Nara Kintetsu Station or JR Nara station.